Head injury is the most serious type of injury sustained in motorcycle accidents. The average cost to taxpayers for medical care for nonbelmeted motorcycle-accident victims is twice that for their helmeted counterparts. Jurisdictions that have enacted motorcycle-helmet laws have reduced the incidence and severity of accident-related head injuries, thereby reducing the cost to taxpayers. Therefore, to achieve similar cost reductions, other jurisdictions should enact motorcycle-helmet laws. For the same reason jurisdictions should also require helmets for horseback riders, since horseback-riding accidents are even more likely to cause serious head injury than motorcycle accidents are.
7.Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the author’s conclusion concerning helmets for horseback riders depend？
（A） Medical care for victims of horseback-riding accidents is financial drain on tax funds.
（B） The higher rate of serious head injury suffered by victims of horseback-riding accidents is due to the difference in size between horses and motorcycles.
（C） The medical costs associated with treating head injuries are higher than those for other types of injury.
（D） Most fatalities resulting from horseback-riding and motorcycle accidents could have been prevented if the victims had been wearing helmets.
（E） When deciding whether to enact helmet laws for motorcyclists and horseback riders, the jurisdiction’s primary concerns is the safety of its citizens.
8. The senator has long held to the general principle that no true work of art is obscene, and thus that there is no conflict between the need to encourage free artistic expression and the need to protect the sensibilities of the public from obscenity. When well-known works generally viewed as obscene are cited as possible counterexamples, the senator justifies accepting the principle by saying that if these works really are obscene then they cannot be works of art.
The senator’s reasoning contains which one of the following errors？
（A） It seeks to persuade by emotional rather than intellectual means.
（B） It contains an implicit contradiction.
（C） It relies on an assertion of the senator’s authority.
（D） It assumes what it seeks to establish.
（E） It attempts to justify a position by appeal to an irrelevant consideration.
9. Until he was dismissed amid great controversy, Hastings was considered one of the greatest intelligence agents of all time. It is clear that if his dismissal was justified, then Hastings was either incompetent or else disloyal. Soon after the dismissal, however, it was shown that he had never been incompetent. Thus, one is forced to conclude that Hastings must have been disloyal.
Which one of the following states an assumption upon which the argument depends？
（A） Hastings’s dismissal was justified.
（B） Hastings was a high-ranking intelligence officer.
（C） The dismissal of anyone who was disloyal would be justified.
（D） Anyone whose dismissal was justified was disloyal.
（E） If someone was disloyal or incompetent, then his dismissal was justified.
10. Anyone who fails to answer a patient’s questions cannot be a competent physician. That is why I feel confident about my physician’s competence： she carefully answers every one of my questions, no matter how trivial.
Which one of the following most closely parallels the flawed reasoning in the argument above？
（A） Anyone who grows up in a large family is accustomed to making compromises. Meredith is accustomed to making compromises, so she might have grown up in a large family.
（B） Anyone who is not in favor of this proposal is ill informed on the issue. Jeanne opposes the proposal, so she is ill informed on the issue.
（C） No one who likes music misses a performance of the symphony. Paul likes music, yet last week he missed a performance of the symphony.
（D） Anyone who works two or more jobs is unable to find a balance between professional and personal life. Maggie has only one job, so she can find a balance between her professional and personal life.
（E） No one who is hot-tempered and strong-willed will succeed in this business. Jeremy is strong-willed, so he will not succeed in this business.
11. The annual Journal for Publication, which often solicits articles, publishes only those articles that are both submitted before March 6 and written by certified psychoanalysts, Stevens, who publishes frequently in psychoanalytic literature, submitted an article to the Journal before March 6. This article was accepted for publication in the Journal.
Which one of the following conclusions follows logically from the statement above？
（A） Stevens is a psychoanalyst.
（B） The Journal frequently accepts Stevens’ articles.
（C） Stevens is an authority on a large number of topics is psychoanalysis.
（D） The Journal asked Stevens to write an article.
（E） Stevens’ recently accepted article will be interesting to Journal readers.
Arguing that there was no trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages because there are no written records of such trade is like arguing that the yeti, an apelike creature supposedly existing in the Himalayas, does not exist because there have been no scientifically confirmed sightings. A verifiable sighting of the yeti would prove that the creature does exist, but the absence of sightings cannot prove that it does not.
12. Which one of the following best expresses the point of the argument？
（A） Evidence for the existence of trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages is, like evidence for the existence of the yeti, not scientifically confirmed.
（B） In order to prove that in the early Middle Ages there was trade between Europe and East Asia it is necessary to find both Asian and European evidence that such trade existed.
（C） That trade between Europe and East Asia did not exist in the early Middle Ages cannot be established simply by the absence of a certain sort of evidence that this trade existed.
（D） The view that there was trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages can only be disproved by showing that no references to this trade exist in surviving records.
（E） There is no more evidence that trade between Europe and East Asia existed in the early Middle Ages than there is that the yeti exists.
13. Which one of the following considerations, if true, best counters the argument？
（A） Most of the evidence for the existence of trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages is archaeological and therefore does not rely on written records.
（B） Although written records of trade in East Asia in the early Middle Ages survived, there are almost no Europe documents from that period that mention trade at all.
（C） Any trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages would necessarily have been of very low volume and would have involved high-priced items, such as precious metals and silk.
（D） There have been no confirmed sightings of the yeti, but there is indirect evidence, such as footprints, which if it is accepted as authentic would establish the yeti’s existence.
（E） There are surviving European and East Asian written records from the early Middle Ages that do not mention trade between the two regions but would have been very likely to do so if this trade had existed.