Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer, that is the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer, blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
1.An office building at State University contains a concrete stairway, the carpet on which has become worn and frayed. Despite numerous warnings by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the university has not replaced a burned-out light in the stairway. Fred, a student, recently caught his heel in the torn carpet, tripped, and fell down the stairway. He was hospitalized for a severe concussion and other injuries. After his release from the hospital, he required much more medical attention and medication and had to withdraw from the university for a semester. He brings suit against the university.
Which one of the following is the best ling of causal analysis for Fred's attorney to pursue in the personal injury case?
(A) The concrete steps, because they were hard, worsened Fred's injuries.
(B) The university is responsible for the condition of the carpet.
(C) The burned-out light constitutes negligence.
(D) The distance Fred fell worsened his injuries.
(E) The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has no jurisdiction over the university.
2.Research shows that exercise has a beneficial effect on health. After much testing with many different types of persons, it has been shown that, in most cases, exercise definitely helps to prevent illnesses caused by viruses. The common cold is caused by a virus. Therefore._________
Which one of the following is the best completion of the argument above?
(A) exercise alone will not prevent the common cold
(B) exercise is no more effective than antibiotics in preventing the common cold
(C) exercise is probably not effective in preventing colds caused by bacteria
(D) exercise helps the body to destroy invading viruses
(E) exercise may help to prevent the common cold
3.Just a few years ago salmon could not survive in the oxygen-starved and polluted Thames. Nor could many other species. But now, after years of determined effort, the salmon have returned, and that is a sure sign that the river is pollution-free.
Each of the following indicates a possible flaw in the reasoning in the passage above EEXCEPT:
(A) The salmon that have returned may be of a strain that is unaffected by the pollutants.
(B) The pollution may have been reduced to a level at which the salmon can survive.
(C) Oxygen starvation is often a consequence of pollution, and this may have killed the salmon.
(D) The salmon may have been killed by one particular pollutant, which has now been removed while others remain.
(E) There may still be pollution, but its nature may have changed to a form that saimon can tolerate.
4.The state's licensing procedures for day-care providers are inadequate.used to leave my son with a wonderful woman who kept a group of neighborhood children, but she quit rather than put up with the licensing paperwork. And a friend of mine tells me that he cannot recommend the day-care center that he uses, even though it is licensed, because the care providers are not interested in doing anything beyond meeting the minimum requirments of health and safety.
The author of the passage argues by
(A) providing examples to support two opposing positions
(B) basing a conciusion on specific cases
(C) disputing evidence cited by those with an opposing point of view
(D) predicting personal experience from a general principle
(E) using a generalization based on observation to undermine a theoretical Principle
5.All 250 of the city's Democratic ward leaders were polled about the number of registered Republicans who became registered Democrats during the year. From the reports of the 20 leaders who replied to the questionnaire, we know that altogether they received a total of 500 former Republicans into the Democratic party within the year. Projecting from this sample, we conclude that at least 6,000 Republicans became Democrats during the year.
Which one of the following statements, if true, most clearly undermines the conclusion?
(A) Several years ago, 5,000 members of the Republican party registered as Democrats.
(B) The more than 90 percent of ward leaders not replying had no former Republicans registering as Democrats.
(C) Because they were too busy, more than 90 percent of the ward leaders did not reply percent of the ward leaders did not reply
(D) A number of the newly registered Democrats returned to the Republican party at a later date.
(E) Similar figures can be produced from past years for registrationchanges from the Democratic party to the Republican party
6.A linguist recently argued that all human languages must have a common origin because some concepts are universal; that is they appear in all languages. For example, all languages are capable of describing lightness and darkness.
Which one of the following, if true would most senously weaken the argument?
A) The Bernese language does not contain basic nouns like automobile and airplane.
(B) No one linguist could possibly speak all known languages.
(C) All speakers, regardless of their languages are confronted with similar stimuli like lightness and darkness.
(D) The similarity between human language and dolphin language has not been attributed to a common origin.
(E) Some languages include concepts of which speakers of other languages are not even aware.
7.All psychiatrists are doctors. Only psychiatrists were invited to the conference. All who were invited to the conference stayed at the Hefford Hote. Therefore, only psychiatrists stayed at the Hefford Hotel.
Which one of the following statements, if added as a premise to the argument, would make the conclusion valid?
(A) Only those who were invited to the conference stayed at the Hefford Hotel.
(B) All who were invited to the conference were psychiatrists.
(C) All psychiatrists were invited to the conference.
(D) No one who was invited to the conference failed to stay at the Hefford Hotel.
(E) Only doctors stayed at the Hefford Hotel.