愛思英語編者按:定語從句是由一些關系代詞或者關系副詞引導的從句組成,用來修飾名詞中心詞。

定語從句:定語從句是由一些關系代詞或者關系副詞引導的從句組成,用來修飾名詞中心詞。

Person has pieced togethter the workd of hundereds of researcher around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest date when we can expect hundreds of key breakthrough and discoveries to take place.皮而森匯集了……生產出獨特的千年歷,這種千年歷(它)能夠……

定語的翻譯要特別注意位子上的變化,即:如果是單詞修飾名詞就放在中心詞的前面,這和漢語的詞序是一樣的;如果定語太長,定語就要放在中心詞的后面,這時就要注意斷句,重復先行詞,例如:

1.I have the same problem as you concerning the learning of English 在學英語的問題上,我和你有同樣的問題。

2.She has a perfect figure. 她身材不錯。

3.This is indeed a most pressing problem. 這的確是一個非常棘手的問題。

4.The only other people who knew the secret were his father and mother. 別的知道這個秘密的人就是他的父母。

5.The effective work of maintaining discipline is usually performed by students who advise the academic authorities 有效的維持紀律通常是由一些學生來做的,而這些學生則負責給學校的領導提建議。

6.The nomads who made these markings lived by hunting a d fishing during the last Ice Age which began about 35,00 B.C. and ended about 10,000 B.C.作出這些刻記的游牧人,依靠狩獵和捕魚生活在冰河時代的晚期。這段時期大約始于公元前35,000 年而結束于公元前10,000 年。

新2代理网站7. For several hundred years, cases have been reported of children who have been reared in the wild by animals kept isolated from all social contact.在過去的幾百年中,已經有記載說,確實有被動物養大的與世隔絕的狼孩的存在。

另外,翻譯成漢語時還要注意未省略關系代詞和關系副詞的定語從句,翻譯時所遵守的原則和上述的一樣:關系代詞引導的定語從句:8.He is the very person (whom) I‘m looking for.他正是我要找的人。

9.This is the flexible policy that our government has pursued consistently. 這就是我們政府一直追求的靈活政策。

10.Those whose families cannot afford board and expenses can be allowed to receive scholarship.那些家里提供不起食宿的學生可以得到獎學金。

11.There are forms that occasionally occur which should not be taught to students.有些形式是不能告訴給學生的。

關系副詞引導的定語從句:12.I took Mr. John to the village , where I had spent my carefree childhood. 我把約翰先生帶到我度過無憂無慮童年的鄉村。

13.I still remember the time when we studied in the same university.我還記得我們一起上大學的日子。

新2代理网站具體翻譯來說,定語從句的翻譯可分為限制性和非限制性定語從句兩種,翻譯成漢語時不論是在語序方面還是重復先行詞方面都有一定的講究:

限制性定語從句的翻譯可分為以下幾方面:1.前置:這種定語從句一般比較短,翻譯起來比較方便,和漢語的詞序完全一樣,例如:

a.This is the finest weather that I have ever seen this month.這是這個月我所看到的最好的天氣。

b.Our two countries are neighbors whose friendship is of long standing. 我們兩國是友誼長存的友好鄰邦。

c.Teachers generally like the students who achieve high scores in tests.老師通常喜歡考試中成績好的學生。

新2代理网站d.他不是一個輕易服輸的人He is not the one who will give up easily.

新2代理网站以上的這些例子告訴我們,如果定語很短的話,我們可以把他象漢語一樣放在中心詞的前面。

但是,有的時候,如果定語太長,讀起來就不符和漢語的習慣,因此,往往要后置,重復先行詞,這就是下面要提到的定語從句的“后置”問題,例如:

2.后置:a. Misers are often lonely and obscure men whose wealth is revealed only after their death.吝嗇鬼經常是看起來年很孤單、不為人所主意,可他們的財富只有等到他們死了以后才暴露出來。

3.“綜合性”的翻譯法。

新2代理网站綜合性“的翻譯就是,翻譯時不需要關系詞,其中的關系完全靠上下文的意思來表現出來,例如:

a.This is the place where the accident occurred.這就是發生交通事故的地方。

b.The person who delivered the letter to him is his neighbor. 他的鄰居把信交給了他。

新2代理网站c. There is a big oak tree that stands just in front of the village.村子前面有棵大象樹d.Most of our patients welcomed another human being with whom they could talk openly,honestly, and frankly about their trouble. 大多數病人想找人坦率、誠實地傾訴他們的苦衷。

非限制性定語從句:這里,也可以分為以下幾種:1.前置:a. We need a chairman , in whom everyone has confidence 我們需要一個人人都信賴的主席。

b.The worldly well-known actor, who had been ill for two years , meet thunderstorm applause when reappeared on the stage.那個病了很多年的著名演員,一上臺觀眾就報以雷鳴般的掌聲。

c. Piccaso, whose works inspired many artists, lived until he was a ripe old age.畢加索的作品曾鼓勵了很多人,后來年紀很大時,作品也日趨成熟。

2.后置:這里包括:重復先行詞,譯成并列分句。這是比較常見的翻譯方法:

a.He deposits a little sum of money in the bank , by which means he hopes to deal with any potential emergency easily.我們每個月都在銀行里存一些錢,這樣,碰到有任何危機時,我們就可以應付了。

b. A table has four legs, one of which is broken.桌子有四條腿,其中的一條腿是壞的。

新2代理网站c. Living in the central Australian desert has its problems , of which obtaining water is not the least. 生活在澳大利亞中部有很多問題,其中取水還不算最艱苦的。

d.He decided to resign, which is the best thing he could do under the circumstances.他決定辭職,而這是他目前所能做的最好的事。

新2代理网站e.He is late for class today, as is often the case.他今天遲到了,而這是經常的事。

新2代理网站以上的句子在翻譯成漢語后,要重復先行詞。其中的“which ”可以是指前面的整個句子,也可以單指某個先行詞。

3.省略先行詞這種句行就象前面講的“綜和性”翻譯一樣,直接把整個句子的意思講出來,例如:

a.The two universities signed an agreement, under which they would exchange students and scholars. 這兩個大學,簽定了協議,決定交換學生和學者。

b.He caught a young soldier coming to the farmhouse , whose face turned pale for too much loss of blood. 他看見一個士兵走進農舍,臉色因失血過多而蒼白。

c. He passed the exam , which can be read from his the light on his face.我從他臉上就可以看出他已通過了考試。

d. He arrived at the railway station in time, which is expected .他果然準時到了火車站。

4.譯成狀語從句有些作定語的句子聽起來卻有點象狀語從句,因此翻譯時可以將其譯成狀語似的從句:a.You should take advantage of the opportunity to learn English well, which is very valuable. (原因)

你應該利用這個機會好好學習英語,這太重要了。

b.We examine the quality of our products, which is why they are so reliable. (原因)

新2代理网站我們檢驗產品很仔細,因此產品都很可靠。

c.I never believe the stories , which is appealing.(讓步)

新2代理网站我從不相信他所說的故事,即使它很動聽。

5.“as”引導的句子:除了以上這些例子以外,還有一些特殊的由“as”引導的句子,翻譯時可參考“as”的比較結構從句:a. He is not such as fool as he looks 他并不象看上去的那么傻。

b. They were not such questions as could easily be disposed of. 這些問題可不是那么容易就能處理好的。

c. It wasn‘t such a good dinner as she had promised us.這頓飯可沒有她向我們說的那么好